Teleprompter n : a prompter for television performers
EtymologyGenericized trademark; tele- + prompter
Pronunciation(US) IPA: /ˈtɛləˌprɑmptər/
- Telescript redirects here. For the programming language of the same name, see General Magic.
(Note that this is only true in principle — when the space between the lens and the mirror is covered in a shroud, an ordinary glass pane will work as a one way mirror).
As the speaker does not need to look down to consult written notes, he or she appears to have memorized the speech or be speaking spontaneously, and will look directly into the camera lens. Cue cards, on the other hand, will always be placed away from the lens axis, making the speaker look at a point beside the camera, which leaves a "distracted" impression.
HistoryThe first "teleprompters" were simply mechanical devices located near the camera. The script was printed on a paper scroll, which was advanced as the performer read.
The TelePrompTer company was founded in the 1950s by Fred Barton Jr., Hubert J. (Hub) Schlafly and Irving Berlin Kahn. Barton was an actor who suggested the concept of the teleprompter as a means of assisting television performers who had to memorize large amounts of material in a short time.
The first personal computer-based Teleprompter, Compu=Prompt, appeared in 1982. It was invented and marketed by Courtney M. Goodin & Laurence B. Abrams in Hollywood, California. This custom software and specially re-designed camera hardware ran on the ATARI 800 Personal Computer. Their company later became ProPrompt Inc., which is still providing teleprompting services some 26 years later. Other paper-based Teleprompting companies Q-TV and Telescript followed suit and developed their own software several years later, when computers with enough graphics power to provide the smooth scrolling text became available..
It should also be noted that Jess Oppenheimer, producer of I Love Lucy, claims credit for the original concept of the teleprompter and was awarded the U.S. patent for its creation. Originally used so that Lucille Ball could read commercials on-camera, it soon became a staple for television news.
As late as 1992, "The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson" was still using an early mechanical teleprompter.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s Autoscript (a UK and US based company) pioneered TFT monitors rather than the traditional CRTs. This allowed significantly less weight on the camera itself and more portability. They also introduced high brightness monitors allowing prompters to be used in direct sunlight. A further breakthrough in 2005 introduced Voice Activated Prompting. Along with their partner, Sysmedia, Autoscript developed a prompter which required no peripheral to control the scroll of the prompter. The Voice activated prompter simply scrolled at the speed of the presenters speech.
EtymologyThe word TelePrompTer, with internal capitalization, originated as a trade name used by the TelePrompTer Company, who first developed the electronic device in the 1950s.
The word teleprompter, with no capitalization, had become a genericized trademark because it is used to refer to similar systems manufactured by many different companies. The United States Patent Office does not have any "live" trademarks registered for the word "teleprompter," but this does not rule out the possibility of a company enforcing the trademark without registering it. Some other common generic terms for this type of device include:
TelevisionModern teleprompters for news programs consist of a personal computer, connected to video monitors on each camera. The monitors are often black-and-white monochrome, and have the horizontal scanning reversed to compensate for the reflection of the mirror. A peripheral device attached to the serial port has a knob that can be turned to speed up or slow down the scrolling of the text. The text is usually displayed in white capital letters on a black background for the best readability, while cues are in inverse video (black on white). Difficult words (mainly foreign names) are spelled out phonetically, as are other particulars like "Nine-eleven" (to specify that the event 9/11 should not be pronounced "nine-one-one", for example).
SpeechesTeleprompters are often used for speeches as well. In this application they are called Conference Teleprompter Systems. In this case, the reflector is usually a piece of glass with a special partially reflective coating. It is mostly transparent so as not to block the view of the speaker by the audience or cameras. Usually two of these are set up, one on either side of the podium (if there is one), so the speaker can look around at the audience and always be able to see one. Except for these aesthetic changes, they work the same as for television.
ConcertsControversially, teleprompters are sometimes used in concerts, to assist performers who have trouble remembering the words to songs. The teleprompter may be of the kind used in speeches, or may just be a monitor set into the stage floor.
Errol MorrisDocumentary filmmaker Errol Morris uses a teleprompter-like setup in conducting interviews which he refers to as the "Interrotron." The prompter equipment is set up on the camera (often a film camera) however instead of displaying a written script it is used to display the image coming from a video camera trained on Morris who is seated nearby. In this way the interview subject can be looking directly into the lens of the camera to see Morris' face while speaking instead of off in some other direction. The camera focused on Morris can also be set up with a prompter displaying the subject (using the "video assist" output if a film camera is used on the subject). In this way the two can carry out a virtual face to face conversation for the interview.
teleprompter in Arabic: شاشة القراءة
teleprompter in Catalan: Teleprompter
teleprompter in German: Prompter
teleprompter in Spanish: Teleprompter
teleprompter in French: Prompteur
teleprompter in Italian: Teleprompter
teleprompter in Hebrew: טלפרומפטר
teleprompter in Dutch: Autocue
teleprompter in Japanese: プロンプター (電気機器)
teleprompter in Norwegian: Autocue
teleprompter in Polish: Teleprompter
teleprompter in Portuguese: Teleprompter